not doing drugs is another good way to sleep ive found. but sometimes staying up all night is also enjoyable. depends how much surplus energy you have available.
Er, yes. I think so. I'm doubting myself now.
REM sleep (when dreams happen) is greatly reduced in people who smoke weed and drink booze. You bypass REM sleep and go straight into deep sleep. I assume you still dream a little bit but certainly not as much. In the podcast Matthew Walker explains that this is why alcoholics have delerium trems when coming off booze - they're dreaming while they're awake because the brain goes into overdrive trying to catch up on the dreaming its been prevented from doing. Which is suggestive of how important dreaming is - it's something to do with repairing the brain. This is presumably why a lack of sleep is linked to alzheimer's in later life.
0.04% of papers are retracted. At least 1.9% of papers have duplicate images "suggestive of deliberate manipulation". About 2.5% of scientists admit to fraud, and they estimate that 10% of other scientists have committed fraud. 27% of postdocs said they were willing to select or omit data to improve their results. More than 50% of published findings in psychology are false. The ORI, which makes about 13 misconduct findings per year, gives a conservative estimate of over 2000 misconduct incidents per year.